Welsh Board A2 Syllabus  Options 

There are FOUR options of which you chose ONE. Actually your tutor will choose it unless you are lucky enough to study in a college that has four or more Physics A2 groups. 

In the exam, you are expected to demonstrate and apply knowledge of: 

Option A Alternating Currents A more detailed account of AC Theory can be found HERE 

(a) 
Using Faraday's law, the principle of electromagnetic induction applied to a rotating coil in a magnetic field 

(b) 
the idea that the flux linkage of a rotating flat coil in a uniform magnetic Bfield is BAN cos ωt because the angle between the coil normal and the field can be expressed as θ =ωt; 

(c) 
the equation V = BANω sin ωt for the induced emf in a rotating flat coil in a uniform Bfield; 

(d) 
the terms frequency, period, peak value and rms value when applied to alternating potential differences and currents; 

(e) 
the idea that the rms value is related to the energy dissipated per cycle, and use the relationships:


(f) 
the idea that the mean power dissipated in a resistor is given by:
where V and I are the rms values; 

(g) 
the use of an
oscilloscope (CRO or PC based via USB or sound card) to measure: 

(h) 
the 90° phase lag of current behind potential difference for an inductor in a sinusoidal a.c. circuit; 

(i) 
the idea that:
is called the reactance, X_{L} , of the inductor, and to use the equation X_{L} = ωL; 

(j) 
the 90° phase lead of current ahead of potential difference for a capacitor in a sinusoidal a.c. circuit, and to use the equation:


(k) 
the idea that the mean power dissipation in an inductor or a capacitor is zero; 

(l) 
how to add potential differences across series RC, RL, and RCL combinations using phasors; 

(m) 
how to calculate phase angle and impedance, Z, (defined as:
for such circuits); 

(n) 
how to derive an expression for the resonance frequency of an RCL series circuit; 

(o) 
the idea that the Q factor of a RCL circuit is the ratio:
at resonance. 

(p) 
the idea that the sharpness of the resonance curve is determined by the Q factor of the circuit. 

Option B Medical Physics 

(a) 
The nature and properties of Xrays; 

(b) 
the production of Xray spectra including methods of controlling the beam intensity and photon energy; 

(c) 
the use of high energy Xrays in the treatment of patients (therapy) and low energy Xrays in diagnosis; 

(d) 
the equation:
for the attenuation of Xrays; 

(e) 
the use of Xrays in imaging soft tissue, and fluoroscopy to produce real time Xrays using image intensifiers; 

(f) 
techniques of radiography including using digital image receptors; 

(g) 
the use of a rotating beam Xray computed tomography (CT) scanner; 

(h) 
the generation and detection of ultrasound using piezoelectric transducers; 

(i) 
scanning with ultrasound for diagnosis including Ascans and Bscans incorporating examples and applications; 

(j) 
the significance of acoustic impedance, defined by Z = c ρ for the reflection and transmission of sound waves at tissue boundaries, including the need for a coupling medium; 

(k) 
the use of the Doppler Equation:
to study blood flow using an ultrasound probe; 

(l) 
the principles of magnetic resonance with reference to precession nuclei, resonance and relaxation time, and to apply the equation f = 42.6 × 10^{6} B for the Larmor frequency; 

(m) 
the use of MRI in obtaining diagnostic information about internal structures; 

(n) 
the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound imaging, Xray imaging and MRI in examining internal structures; 

(o) 
the effects of α, β, and γ radiation on living matter;
the Gray (Gy) as the unit of absorbed dose and the Sievert (Sv) as the unit of equivalent dose and effective dose. Define absorbed dose as energy per kilogram; 

(p) 
the use of the
equations 

(q) 
the uses of radionuclides as tracers to image body parts with particular reference to technetium99m (Tc99m); 

(r) 
the use of the gamma camera including the principles of the collimator, scintillation counter and photomultiplier / CCD; 

(s) 
positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and its use in detecting tumours. 

Option C The Physics of Sports 

(a) 
How to use the centre of gravity to explain how stability and toppling is achieved in various sporting contexts; 
Mechanics 4 
(b) 
How to use the
principle of moments to determine forces within: 

(c) 
how to use Newton’s 2nd law in the form Ft = mv  mu in various sporting contexts; 

(d) 
the coefficient of restitution as:
and also use it in the form:
where h is the bounce height and H is the drop height; 
Physics 6 Tutorial 9 
(e) 
what is meant by the moment of inertia of a body; 

(f) 
how to use equations to determine the moment of inertia, I, for example: a solid sphere


(g) 
the idea that angular acceleration, α, is defined as the rate of change of angular velocity, ω, and how to use the equation: ; 

(h) 
the idea that torque, τ, is given as τ = Iα; 

(i) 
angular momentum, J, is given as J = Iω where ω is the angular velocity; (In the notes, the Physics code L is used instead of J.) 

(j) 
the principle of conservation of angular momentum and use it to solve problems in sporting contexts; 

(k) 
how to use the equation for the rotational kinetic energy: ; 

(l) 
how to use the principle of conservation of energy including the use of linear and rotational kinetic energy as well as gravitational and elastic potential energy in various sporting contexts; 

(m) 
how to use projectile motion theory in sporting contexts; 

(n) 
how to use Bernoulli’s equation:
in sporting contexts; 

(o) 
how to determine the magnitude of the drag force using:
where CD is the drag coefficient. 

Option D Energy and the Environment 

(a) 
How the following affect the rate at which the temperature of the Earth rises including:


(b) 
the common sources of renewable and nonrenewable energy and be able to compare their development and use both in the UK and internationally
(ii) wind power:
(iii) tidal barrages,
hydroelectric power and pumped storage:


(c) 
the principles of fuel cell operation and the benefits of fuel cells particularly regarding greenhouse gas emissions; 

(d) 
the thermal conduction equation in the form:

Physics 6 Tutorial 14 
(e) 
the effect of insulation on thermal energy loss and be able to calculate the heat loss for parallel surfaces using the rate of energy transfer =UAΔθ including cases where different materials are in contact. 

And that is it. 