  SQA Advanced Higher Physics (Secondary Year 6) Home        National 5    Higher Rotational Motion and Astrophysics Forces, energy and power Derivation of equations of motion using calculus methods. Go to Calculus Derivation Mechanics 6 Use of calculus methods to calculate instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration for straight line motion with a constant or varying acceleration. Mechanics 6 Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving displacement, velocity and acceleration and time for straight line motion with constant or varying acceleration. Interpretation of graphs of motion for objects moving in a straight line. Mechanics 6 Calculation of displacement, velocity or acceleration from graphs. Mechanics 6 Angular motion Use of the radian as a measure of angular displacement.  Calculus Derivation at the end of Applied Physics 1 Further Mechanics 1 Conversion between degrees and radians.  Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration and time. Further Mechanics 1 Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving angular and tangential motion. Applied Physics 1 Use of an appropriate relationship to carry out calculations involving constant angular velocity and period. Further Mechanics 1 Centripetal force and acceleration.  Consideration of a centripetal (radial or central) force acting on an object to maintain circular motion, and the resulting centripetal (radial or central) acceleration of the object. Further Mechanics 1 Derivation of centripetal acceleration: and Further Mechanics 1 Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving centripetal acceleration and centripetal force. Further Mechanics 2 Rotational dynamics Consideration of an unbalanced torque as causing a change in the angular (rotational) motion of an object.     Applied Physics 1 Definition of moment of inertia of an object as a measure of its resistance to angular acceleration about a given axis. Applied Physics 1 Use of appropriate relationships to calculate the moment of inertia of discrete masses, rods, discs and spheres about a given axis. Applied Physics 1 Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving torque, perpendicular force, distance from axis, angular acceleration and moment of inertia. Applied Physics 1 Angular momentum - Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving angular momentum, angular velocity, moment of inertia, tangential velocity, mass and its distance from the axis. Applied Physics 2 Statement of the principle of conservation of angular momentum. Applied Physics 2 Use of the principle of conservation of angular momentum to solve problems. Applied Physics 2 Rotational kinetic energy - Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving potential energy, rotational kinetic energy, translational kinetic energy, angular velocity, linear velocity, moment of inertia and mass. Applied Physics 2 Gravitation Definition of gravitational field strength as the gravitational force acting on a unit mass. Use of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation to solve problems involving, force, masses and their separation is expected. In the notes, the minus sign is used to indicate that gravity is attractive. Fields 1 Sketch field lines and field line patterns around a planet and a planet–moon system. Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving gravitational force, masses and their separation. Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving period of satellites in circular orbit, masses, orbit radius and satellite speed. Kepler III Gravitational potential and potential energy.  Definition of gravitational potential of a point in space as the work done in moving unit mass from infinity to that point. Fields 2 Knowledge that the energy required to move mass between two points in a gravitational field is independent of the path taken. Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving gravitational potential, gravitational potential energy, masses and their separation. Escape velocity Definition of escape velocity as the minimum velocity required to allow a mass to escape a gravitational field or as the minimum velocity required to achieve zero kinetic energy and maximum (zero) potential energy. Derivation of the relationship: Use of appropriate relationships to carry out calculations involving escape velocity, mass and distance. Consideration of the energy required by a satellite to move from one orbit to another. General relativity Knowledge that special relativity deals with motion in inertial (non-accelerating) frames of reference and that general relativity deals with motion in non-inertial (accelerating) frames of reference. Look at Basics of Relativity (Turning Points 5) and Special Relativity (Turning Points 6) Statement of the equivalence principle (that it is not possible to distinguish between the effects on an observer of a uniform gravitational field and of a constant acceleration) and awareness of its consequences. Space-time diagrams: Consideration of space-time as a representation of four dimensional space. Knowledge that light or a freely moving object follows a geodesic (the shortest distance between two points) in space-time. Knowledge that GR leads to the interpretation that mass curves space-time, and that gravity arises from the curvature of space-time. Representation of World lines for objects which are stationary, moving with constant velocity and accelerating. Black holes Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems relating to the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole. Knowledge that time appears to be frozen at the event horizon of a black hole. Stellar physics Properties of stars Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving the observed frequency, source frequency, source speed and wave speed. Astrophysics 7 Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems relating to luminosity, apparent brightness, power per unit area, stellar radius and stellar surface temperature. (Using the assumption that stars behave as black bodies.) Knowledge of the stages in the proton-proton chain in stellar fusion reactions which convert hydrogen to helium. Stellar evolution Knowledge and understanding of the stages in stellar evolution and position in Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. Classification of stars and position in Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. Astrophysics 6 Prediction of colour of stars from their position in the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. Astrophysics 5 Top Quanta and Waves Introduction to Quantum Theory Understanding of the challenges to classical theory.  Black body radiation.  Photoelectric effect, Ultraviolet Catastrophe.  Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving photon energy and frequency. See also Particles 2 and Quantum 1 Knowledge of the Bohr model of the atom.  Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving the angular momentum of an electron and its principal quantum number. See also Quantum 3 and Quantum 4 Wave particle duality:  Description of experimental  evidence for wave/particle duality, including Compton Scattering De Broglie waves:  Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving the de Broglie wavelength of a particle and its momentum. Uncertainty principle: Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the uncertainties in position, momentum, energy and time. Understanding of implications of quantum mechanics and the uncertainty principle. Qualitative approach only Particles from Space Cosmic rays. See Magnetic Fields Tutorial 3 to revise the way particles interact with magnetic fields. Physics 6 Tutorial 4 Knowledge of the origin and composition of cosmic rays, the interaction of cosmic rays with Earth’s atmosphere and the helical motion of charged particles in the Earth’s magnetic field. Physics 6 Tutorial 4 Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the force on a charged particle, its charge, its mass, its velocity, the radius of its path and the magnetic induction of a magnetic field. Magnetic Fields 3 Solar wind. Physics 6 Tutorial 5 Knowledge of the interaction of the solar wind with Earth’s magnetic field and the composition of the solar wind as charged particles (e.g. protons and electrons) in the form of plasma. Physics 6 Tutorial 5 Simple Harmonic Motion Definition of SHM in terms of the restoring force and acceleration proportional and in the opposite direction to the displacement from the rest position. x is used in these notes   See Further Mechanics 5 for spring oscillator and pendulum oscillator Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the displacement, velocity, acceleration, angular frequency, period and energy of an object executing SHM. Derivation of the relationships: Knowledge of the effects of damping in SHM (to include under-damping, critical damping’ and over-damping) Further Mechanics 3 Energy in oscillating systems: Waves Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving the energy transferred by a wave and its amplitude. Waves 5 for the Physics of Music Knowledge of the mathematical representation of travelling waves. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving wave motion, phase difference and phase angle. Knowledge of the superposition of waves and stationary waves. Interference and diffraction Knowledge of the conditions for constructive and destructive interference in terms of coherence and phase.  In the Waves 7 notes, this equation is written as: In Physics 6 Tutorial 7, the SQA codes are used. Explanation of interference by division of amplitude, including optical path length, geometrical path length, phase difference, optical path difference, thin film interference and wedge fringes. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving interference of waves by division of amplitude. Derivation of the relationship: Explanation of interference by division of wavefront, including Young’s slits interference. Physics 6 Tutorial 7 Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving interference of waves by division of wavefront. Polarisation Explanation of the polarisation of transverse waves, including polarisers/analysers and Brewster’s angle. Use an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving Brewster’s angle and refractive index. Derivation of the relationship: Electric Fields Definition of electric field strength  Millikan's Experiment Sketch of electric field patterns around single charges, a system of charges and a uniform electric field. Definition of electrical potential. Knowledge that the energy required to move charge between two points in an electric field is independent of the path taken. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving electric force, electric potential and electric field strength around a point charge and a system of charges. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving charge, energy, potential difference and electric field strength in situations involving a uniform electric field. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the motion of charged particles in uniform electric fields. Knowledge of the electronvolt as a unit of energy. Conversion between electronvolt and joules. Magnetism Knowledge that, for example, iron, nickel, cobalt and some rare earths exhibit a magnetic effect called ferromagnetism, in which magnetic dipoles can be made to align’, resulting in the material becoming magnetised.  Magnetic fields are covered in more detail on my companion website.  Click HERE for the link Sketch of magnetic field patterns between magnetic poles, and around solenoids, including the magnetic field pattern around the Earth. Magnetic induction Comparison of gravitational, electrostatic, magnetic and nuclear forces. Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving magnetic induction around a current carrying wire, the current in the wire and the distance from the wire. Electric motor Explanation of the helical movement of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Physics 6 Tutorial 4 Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the forces acting on a current carrying wire and a charged particle in a magnetic field. Reactive Circuits Knowledge of the variation of current and potential difference with time in a CR circuit during charging and discharging. "tau" is used for time constant Definition of the time constant for a CR circuit. Numerical and graphical determination of the time constant for a CR circuit. Definition of capacitive reactance. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving capacitive reactance, voltage, current, frequency and capacitance. Electromagnetic Induction  Inductors in d.c. circuits Self inductance (inductance) of a coil Lenz’s law Definition of inductance and of back e.m.f. Energy stored by an inductor. Inductors in a.c. circuits Inductive reactance. Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving back e.m.f., inductance (self inductance) and rate of change of current. Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems relating to inductive reactance, voltage, current, frequency, energy and inductance (self inductance). Electromagnetic Radiation Knowledge of unification of electricity and magnetism. Understanding that electromagnetic radiation exhibits wave properties and is made up of electric and magnetic field components. Use an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving the speed of light, the permittivity of free space, and permeability of free space. Top Units, prefixes and uncertainties Units, prefixes and scientific notation Appropriate use of units and prefixes. You should read all the induction notes as you will be expected to use the skills as a matter of course. Induction 1 Use of the appropriate number of significant figures in final answers. Induction 2 Appropriate use of scientific notation. Induction 2 Conversions from units like eV and light-years Induction 1 Uncertainties Combination of various types of uncertainties to obtain the total uncertainty in a measurement. Use Tutorials 5 - 7 to learn about graphical skills and presentation.  Tutorial 9 covers the use of ICT. Induction 4 Combination of uncertainties in measured values to obtain the total uncertainty in a calculated value. Induction 4 Appropriate use of uncertainties in data analysis. Induction 4 Data Analysis Graphical interpretation  Use of error bars to represent absolute uncertainties on graphs. Estimation of uncertainty in the gradient and intercept of a linear graph. Understanding the meaning of the terms accuracy and precision with reference to the comparison of an obtained value with a true value. That is it.