  Eduqas A-level Syllabus Home       AS      Options The A-Level Syllabus has sections from the AS syllabus mixed in with the 2nd Year A-level Material.  Your tutor will decide how the syllabus is followed.  The statements that are in AS have lighter blue headers, while those in the A-level year have darker blue headers.  You are expected to be able to tackle questions on the whole syllabus. In the exam, you are expected to demonstrate and apply knowledge of: Newtonian Physics 1.  Basic Physics (a) The 6 essential base SI units (kg, m, s, A, mol, K); Induction 1 (b) representing units in terms of the 6 base SI units and their prefixes; (c) checking equations for homogeneity using units; (d) the difference between scalar and vector quantities and to give examples of each – displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, speed, time, density, pressure etc; Mechanics 1 (e) the addition and subtraction of coplanar vectors, and perform mathematical calculations limited to two perpendicular vectors; (f) how to resolve a vector into two perpendicular components; (g) the concept of density and how to use the equation: to calculate mass, density and volume; Materials 1 (h) what is meant by the turning effect of a force; Mechanics 3 (i) the use of the principle of moments; (j) the use of centre of gravity, for example in problems including stability: identify its position in a cylinder, sphere and cuboid (beam) of uniform density; Mechanics 3 Mechanics 4 (k) when a body is in equilibrium the resultant force is zero and the net moment is zero, and be able to perform simple calculations. Mechanics 2 Mechanics 5 The Induction notes contain many of the skills, which, although not specified in the syllabus, are expected as a matter of course, both in written and experimental work.  You are advised to read them. Induction 2.  Kinematics (a) What is meant by displacement, mean and instantaneous values of speed, velocity and acceleration; Mechanics 6 (b) the representation of displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration by graphical methods; (c) the properties of displacement-time graphs, velocity-time graphs, and interpret speed and displacement-time graphs for non-uniform acceleration; (d) how to derive and use equations which represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line; (e) how to describe the motion of bodies falling in a gravitational field with and without air resistance - terminal velocity; Mechanics 7 Mechanics 8 (f) the independence of vertical and horizontal motion of a body moving freely under gravity; Mechanics 9 (g) the explanation of the motion due to a uniform velocity in one direction and uniform acceleration in a perpendicular direction, and perform simple calculations 3. Dynamics (a) The concept of force and Newton's 3rd law of motion; Mechanics 10 (b) how free body diagrams can be used to represent forces on a particle or body; Mechanics 2 (c) the use of the relationship ΣF = ma in situations where mass is constant; Mechanics 10 (d) the idea that linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity; Mechanics 11 (e) the concept that force is the rate of change of momentum, applying this in situations where mass is constant; (f) the principle of conservation of momentum and use it to solve problems in one dimension involving elastic collisions (where there is no loss of kinetic energy) and inelastic collisions (where there is a loss of kinetic energy). Mechanics 12 4. Energy Concepts (a) The idea that work is the product of a force and distance moved in the direction of the force when the force is constant; Mechanics 13 (b) the calculation of the work done for constant forces, when the force is not along the line of motion (work done = Fx cos q ); (c) the principle of conservation of energy including knowledge of gravitational potential energy (mgDh), elastic potential energy (½ kx2) and kinetic energy (½ mv2); Mechanics 15 (d) The work-energy relationship: ; (Note that the physics code s is used for distance in the notes) Mechanics 13 (e) power being the rate of energy transfer; (f) dissipative forces for example, friction and drag cause energy to be transferred from a system and reduce the overall efficiency of the system; Mechanics 15 (g) Equation: . Mechanics 14 5.  Circular Motion (a) The terms period of rotation, frequency; Further Mechanics 1 (b) the definition of the unit radian as a measure of angle; (c) the use of the radian as a measure of angle; (d) the definition of angular velocity, ω, for an object performing circular motion and performing simple harmonic motion; (e) the idea that the centripetal force is the resultant force acting on a body moving at constant speed in a circle; (f) the centripetal force and acceleration are directed towards the centre of the circular motion; (g) the use of the following equations relating to circular motion: Further examples of circular motion can be found in Further Mechanics Tutorial 2 6.  Vibrations (a) The definition of simple harmonic motion as a statement in words; Further Mechanics 4 (b) a = -ω2x as a mathematical defining equation of simple harmonic motion; (c) the graphical representation of the variation of acceleration with displacement during simple harmonic motion; (d) x = A cos (ωt + ε ) as a solution to -ω2x ;  (k used in the notes) (e) the terms frequency, period, amplitude and phase; (f) period as: ; (g) v = -A sin (ωt + ε) for the velocity during simple harmonic motion; (h) the graphical representation of the changes in displacement and velocity with time during simple harmonic motion; (i) the equation: for the period of a system having stiffness (force per unit extension) k and mass m; Further Mechanics 5 (j) the equation: for the period of a simple pendulum; (k) the graphical representation of the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy during undamped simple harmonic motion, and perform simple calculations on energy changes; Further Mechanics 6 (l) free oscillations and the effect of damping in real systems; Further Mechanics 3 (m) practical examples of damped oscillations; (n) the importance of critical damping in appropriate cases such as vehicle suspensions; (o) forced oscillations and resonance, and to describe practical examples; (p) the variation of the amplitude of a forced oscillation with driving frequency and that increased damping broadens the resonance curve; (q) circumstances when resonance is useful, for example, circuit tuning, microwave cooking and other circumstances in which it should be avoided, for example, bridge design. 7. Kinetic Theory (a) The equation of state for an ideal gas expressed as pV = nRT where R is the molar gas constant and pV = NkT where k is the Boltzmann constant; Thermal Physics 3 (b) the assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases which includes the random distribution of energy among the molecules; (c) the idea that molecular movement causes the pressure exerted by a gas, and use: where N is the number of molecules; (d) the definition of Avogadro constant NA and hence the mole; Thermal Physics 2 (e) the idea that the molar mass M is related to the relative molecular mass Mr by: and that the number of moles n is given by total mass ÷ molar mass; (f) Thermal Physics 3 8. Thermal Physics (a) The idea that the internal energy of a system is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of its molecules; Thermal Physics 3 (b) absolute zero being the temperature of a system when it has minimum internal energy; Thermal Physics 2 (c) the internal energy of an ideal monatomic gas being wholly kinetic so it is given by: In the notes, Ek is used, not U Thermal Physics 3 (d) the idea that heat enters or leaves a system through its boundary or container wall, according to whether the system's temperature is lower or higher than that of its surroundings, so heat is energy in transit and not contained within the system; Engineering Physics 6 (e) the idea that if no heat flows between systems in contact, then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium, and are at the same temperature; Engineering Physics 3   Engineering Physics 4 (f) the idea that energy can enter or leave a system by means of work, so work is also energy in transit; (g) the equation W = pDV can be used to calculate the work done by a gas under constant pressure; (h) the idea that even if p changes, W is given by the area under the p – V graph; (i) the use of the first law of thermodynamics, in the form DU = Q - W and know how to interpret negative values of ΔU, Q, and W; (j) the idea that for a solid (or liquid), W is usually negligible, so Q = ΔU; (k) Q = mc Dθ , for a solid or liquid, and this is the defining equation for specific heat capacity, c. Thermal Physics 1 Electricity and The Universe 1. Conduction of Electricity (a) The fact that the unit of charge is the coulomb (C), and that an electron's charge, e, is a very small fraction of a coulomb; Electricity 1 (b) the fact that charge can flow through certain materials, called conductors; Electricity 4 (c) electric current being the rate of flow of charge; Electricity 1 (d) the use of the equation: ; (e) current being measured in ampères (A), where 1 A = 1 C s-1; (f) the mechanism of conduction in metals as the drift of free electrons; Electricity 4 (g) the derivation and use of the equation I = nAve for free electrons. 2. Resistance (a) The definition of potential difference; Electricity 1 (b) the idea that potential difference is measured in volts (V) where V = J C-1; (c) the characteristics of I – V graphs for the filament of a lamp, and a metal wire at constant temperature; Electricity 3 (d) Ohm's law, the equation V = IR and the definition of resistance; Electricity 2 (e) resistance being measured in ohms (Ω), where Ω = V A-1; Electricity 1 (f) the application of: Electricity 5 (g) collisions between free electrons and ions gives rise to electrical resistance, and electrical resistance increases with temperature; Electricity 4 (h) the application of: the equation for resistivity; (i) the idea that the resistance of metals varies almost linearly with temperature over a wide range; Electricity 2 (j) the idea that ordinarily, collisions between free electrons and ions in metals increase the random vibration energy of the ions, so the temperature of the metal increases; (k) what is meant by superconductivity, and superconducting transition temperature; Electricity 4 (l) the fact that most metals show superconductivity, and have transition temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero (–273 °C); (m) certain materials (high temperature superconductors) having transition temperatures above the boiling point of nitrogen (–196 °C); (n) some uses of superconductors for example, MRI scanners and particle accelerators. 3.  D C Circuits (a) The idea that the current from a source is equal to the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit, and that this is a consequence of conservation of charge; Electricity 7 (b) the sum of the potential differences across components in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the supply, and that this is a consequence of conservation of energy; (c) potential differences across components in parallel are equal; (d) the application of equations for the combined resistance of resistors in series and parallel; (e) the use of a potential divider in circuits (including circuits which contain LDRs and thermistors); Electricity 6 (f) what is meant by the emf of a source; Electricity 8 (g) the unit of emf is the volt (V), which is the same as that of potential difference; (h) the idea that sources have internal resistance and to use the equation V = E – Ir; (i) how to calculate current and potential difference in a circuit containing one cell or cells in series. Electricity 1 Top 4. Capacitance (a) The idea that a simple parallel plate capacitor consists of a pair of equal parallel metal plates separated by a vacuum or air; (b) a capacitor storing energy by transferring charge from one plate to the other, so that the plates carry equal but opposite charges (the net charge being zero); (c) the definition of capacitance as: ; (d) the use of for a parallel plate capacitor, with no dielectric; (e) the idea that a dielectric increases the capacitance of a vacuum-spaced capacitor; (f) the E field within a parallel plate capacitor being uniform and the use of the equation: ; (g) the equation U = 1/2 QV for the energy stored in a capacitor; (E, not U is used in the notes.) (h) the equations for capacitors in series and in parallel; (i) the process by which a capacitor charges and discharges through a resistor; (j) the equations: where RC is the time constant. 5. Solids Under Stress (a) Hooke’s law and use F = kx where the spring constant k is the force per unit extension; Materials 2 (b) the ideas that for materials the tensile stress: the tensile strain: and the Young modulus: when Hooke's Law applies; (c) the work done in deforming a solid being equal to the area under a force-extension graph, which is   1/2 Fx if Hooke’s law is obeyed; (d) the classification of solids as crystalline, amorphous (to include glasses and ceramics) and polymeric; Materials 1 (e) the features of a force-extension (or stress-strain) graph for a metal such as copper, to include: elastic and plastic strain; the effects of dislocations, and the strengthening of metals by introducing barriers to dislocation movement, such as foreign atoms, other dislocations, and more grain boundaries; necking and ductile fracture; Materials 3 (f) the features of a force-extension (or stress-strain) graph for a brittle material such as glass, to include: elastic strain and obeying Hooke’s law up to fracture; brittle fracture by crack propagation, the effect of surface imperfections on breaking stress, and how breaking stress can be increased by reducing surface imperfections (as in thin fibres) or by putting surface under compression (as in toughened glass or pre-stressed concrete); (g) the features of a force-extension (or stress-strain) graph for rubber, to include: Hooke’s law only approximately obeyed, low Young modulus and the extension due to straightening of chain molecules against thermal opposition hysteresis 6. Electrostatic and Gravitational Fields of Force (a) The features of electric and gravitational fields as specified in the table below: ; (Gravity Force) (Energy in Gravity Fields)   (Electrostatic Force) (Energy in Electric Fields) (b) the idea that the gravitational field outside spherical bodies such as the Earth is essentially the same as if the whole mass were concentrated at the centre; (c) field lines (or lines of force) giving the direction of the field at a point, thus, for a positive point charge, the field lines are radially outward; (d) equipotential surfaces joining points of equal potential and are therefore spherical for a point charge; (e) how to calculate the net potential and resultant field strength for a number of point charges or point masses; (f) the equation ΔUP = mgΔh for distances over which the variation of g is negligible. 7.  Using Radiation to Investigate Stars (a) The idea that the stellar spectrum consists of a continuous emission spectrum, from the dense gas of the surface of the star, and a line absorption spectrum arising from the passage of the emitted electromagnetic radiation through the tenuous atmosphere of the star Astrophysics 5 (b) the idea that bodies which absorb all incident radiation are known as black bodies and that stars are very good approximations to black bodies; (c) the shape of the black body spectrum and that the peak wavelength is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature (defined by T (K) = θ (°C) + 273.15); (d) Wien's displacement law, Stefan's law and the inverse square law to investigate the properties of stars – luminosity, size, temperature and distance [N.B. stellar brightness in magnitudes will not be required]; (e) the meaning of multi-wavelength astronomy and that by studying a region of space at different wavelengths (different photon energies) the different processes which took place there can be revealed; Astrophysics 3 8.  Orbits and the Wider Universe (a) Kepler's three laws of planetary motion; (b) Newton's law of gravitation: in simple examples, including the motion of planets and satellites; (c) how to derive Kepler's 3rd law, for the case of a circular orbit from Newton's law of gravity and the formula for centripetal acceleration; (d) how to use data on orbital motion, such as period or orbital speed, to calculate the mass of the central object; (e) how the orbital speeds of objects in spiral galaxies implies the existence of dark matter; (f) how the recently discovered Higgs boson may be related to dark matter; (g) how to determine the position of the centre of mass of two spherically symmetric objects, given their masses and separation, and calculate their mutual orbital period in the case of circular orbits; (h) the Doppler relationship in the form: ; (i) how to determine a star's radial velocity (i.e. the component of its velocity along the line joining it and an observer on the Earth) from data about the Doppler shift of spectral lines; (j) the use of data on the variation of the radial velocities of the bodies in a double system (for example, a star and orbiting exo-planet) and their orbital period to determine the masses of the bodies for the case of a circular orbit edge on as viewed from the Earth; (k) how the Hubble constant (H0) relates galactic radial velocity (v) to distance (D) and it is defined by v = H0D; (l) why 1/H0 approximates the age of the universe; (m) how the equation: for the critical density of a 'flat' universe can be derived very simply using conservation of energy. Top Light and Nuclei 1.  The Nature of Waves (a) The idea that a progressive wave transfers energy without any transfer of matter; Waves 1 (b) the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves; Waves 2 (c) the term polarisation; (d) the terms in phase and in antiphase; Waves 1 (e) the terms displacement, amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period and velocity of a wave; (f) graphs of displacement against time, and displacement against position for transverse waves only; Waves 2 (g) the equation c = fλ; Waves 1 (h) the idea that all points on wavefronts oscillate in phase, and that wave propagation directions (rays) are at right angles to wavefronts. Top 2.  Wave Properties (a) Diffraction occurring when waves encounter slits or obstacles; Waves 8 (b) the idea that there is little diffraction when λ is much smaller than the dimensions of the obstacle or slit; (c) the idea that if λ is equal to or greater than the width of a slit, waves spread as roughly semicircular wavefronts, but if λ is less than the slit width the main beam spreads through less than 180° (d) how two source interference occurs; Waves 7 (e) the historical importance of Young’s experiment; Turning Points 3 (f) the principle of superposition, giving appropriate sketch graphs; Waves 3 (g) the path difference rules for constructive and destructive interference between waves from in phase sources; Waves 7 (h) the use of: ; (Note that the terms w and s are used in the notes) (i) the derivation and use of d sin θ = nλ for a diffraction grating; Waves 8 (j) the idea that for a diffraction grating a very small d makes beams (“orders”) much further apart than in Young’s experiment, and that the large number of slits makes the bright beams much sharper; (k) the idea that coherent sources are monochromatic with wavefronts continuous across the width of the beam and, (when comparing more than one source) with a constant phase relationship; Waves 7 (l) examples of coherent and incoherent sources; (m) the idea that for two source interference to be observed, the sources must have a zero or constant phase difference and have oscillations in the same direction; (n) the differences between stationary and progressive waves; Waves 4 (o) the idea that a stationary wave can be regarded as a superposition of two progressive waves of equal amplitude and frequency, travelling in opposite directions, and that the internodal distance is λ/2. Top 3.  Refraction of Light (a) the refractive index, n, of a medium being defined as c/v, in which v is the speed of light in the medium and c is the speed of light in a vacuum Waves 6 (b) the use of the equations: n1v1 = n2v2 and  n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 (regarded as Snell’s law); (c) how Snell's law relates to the wave model of light propagation and for diagrams of plane waves approaching a plane boundary obliquely, and being refracted; (d) the conditions for total internal reflection; (e) the derivation and use of the equation for the critical angle: ; (f) how to apply the concept of total internal reflection to multimode optical fibres; (g) the problem of multimode dispersion with optical fibres in terms of limiting the rate of data transfer and transmission distance; (h) how the introduction of monomode optical fibres has allowed for much greater transmission rates and distances. Top 4.  Photons (a) The fact that light can be shown to consist of discrete packets (photons) of energy; Quantum Physics 1 (b) how the photoelectric effect can be demonstrated; (c) how a vacuum photocell can be used to measure the maximum kinetic energy, Ek max, of emitted electrons in eV and hence in J; Quantum Physics 2 (d) the graph of Ek max against frequency of illuminating radiation; (e) how a photon picture of light leads to Einstein's equation: and how this equation correlates with the graph of Ek max against frequency; (f) the fact that the visible spectrum runs approximately from 700 nm (red end) to 400 nm (violet end) and the orders of magnitude of the wavelengths of the other named regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; Particles 3 (g) typical photon energies for these radiations; (h) how to produce line emission and line absorption spectra from atoms; Quantum Physics 3 (i) the appearance of such spectra as seen in a diffraction grating; Waves 8 (j) simple atomic energy level diagrams, together with the photon hypothesis, line emission and line absorption spectra; Quantum Physics 4 (k) how to determine ionisation energies from an energy level diagram; (l) the demonstration of electron diffraction and that particles have a wave-like aspect; Quantum Physics 6 (m) the use of the relationship: for both particles of matter and photons; (n) the calculation of radiation pressure on a surface absorbing or reflecting photons. Quantum Physics 7 Top 5.  LASERS (a) The process of stimulated emission and how this process leads to light emission that is coherent; Quantum Physics 8 (b) the idea that a population inversion (N2 > N1) is necessary for a laser to operate; (c) the idea that a population inversion is not (usually) possible with a 2-level energy system (d) how a population inversion is attained in 3 and 4-level energy systems; (e) the process of pumping and its purpose; (f) the structure of a typical laser i.e. an amplifying medium between two mirrors, one of which partially transmits light; (g) the advantages and uses of a semiconductor laser i.e. small, cheap, far more efficient than other types of laser, and it is used for CDs, DVDs, telecommunication etc Top 6. Nuclear Decay (a) The spontaneous nature of nuclear decay; the nature of α, β and γ radiation, and equations to represent the nuclear transformations using the isotope notation; (b) different methods used to distinguish between α, β and γ radiation and the connections between the nature, penetration and range for ionising particles; (c) how to make allowance for background radiation in experimental measurements; (d) the concept of the half-life, T½; (Inverse Square Law) (e) the definition of the activity, A, and the Becquerel; (f) the decay constant, λ, and the equation A = λ N; (g) the exponential law of decay in graphical and algebraic form: where x is the number of half-lives elapsed – not necessarily an integer; (h) the derivation and use of: . 7. Particles and Nuclear Structures (a) The idea that matter is composed of quarks and leptons and that there are three generations of quarks and leptons, although no questions will be set involving second or third generations: Particles 7(Leptons) (Quarks) (b) the idea that antiparticles exist for the particles given in the table above, that the properties of an antiparticle are identical to those of its corresponding particle apart from having opposite charge, and that particles and antiparticles annihilate; Particles 6 (c) symbols for a positron and for antiparticles of quarks and hadrons; (d) the idea that quarks and antiquarks are never observed in isolation, but are bound into composite particles called hadrons, or three types of baryon (combinations of 3 quarks), or antibaryons (combinations of 3 antiquarks) or mesons (quark-antiquark pairs); Particles 9(Mesons) (Baryons) (e) the quark compositions of the neutron and proton; Particles 10 (f) how to use data in the table above to suggest the quark make-up of less well known first generation baryons and of charged pions; Particles 9 Particles 10 (g) the properties of the four forces or interactions experienced by particles as summarized in the table below: Particles 5 (h) how to apply conservation of charge, lepton number and baryon number (or quark number) to given simple reactions; Particles 11 (i) the idea that neutrino involvement and quark flavour changes are exclusive to weak interactions. Top 8.  Nuclear Energy (a) The association between mass and energy and that E = mc2; (b) the binding energy for a nucleus and hence the binding energy per nucleon, making use, where necessary, of the unified atomic mass unit (u); (c) how to calculate binding energy and binding energy per nucleon from given masses of nuclei; (d) the conservation of mass / energy to particle interactions – for example: fission, fusion; (e) the relevance of binding energy per nucleon to nuclear fission and fusion making reference when appropriate to the binding energy per nucleon versus nucleon number curve. Top 9.  Magnetic Fields (a) How to determine the direction of the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field; (b) how to calculate the magnetic field, B, by considering the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field i.e. understand how to use F = BIl sinθ; (c) how to use F = Bqv sinθ for a moving charge in a magnetic field; (d) the processes involved in the production of a Hall voltage and understand that VH ∝ B for constant I; (e) the shapes of the magnetic fields due to a current in a long straight wire and a long solenoid; (f) the equations: for the field strengths due to a long straight wire and in a long solenoid; (In the notes, r is used, not a for separation) (g) the fact that adding an iron core increases the field strength in a solenoid; (h) the idea that current carrying conductors exert a force on each other and to predict the directions of the forces (i) quantitatively, how ion beams of charged particles, are deflected in uniform electric and magnetic fields; (j) the motion of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields in linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons. Top 10.  Electromagnetic Induction (a) The definition of magnetic flux as Φ = AB cos θ and flux linkage = NΦ; (b) the laws of Faraday and Lenz; (c) how to apply the laws of Faraday and Lenz (i.e. emf = - rate of change of flux linkage) (d) the idea that an emf is induced in a linear conductor moving at right angles to a uniform magnetic field; (e) qualitatively, how the instantaneous emf induced in a coil rotating at right angles to a magnetic field is related to the position of the coil, flux density, coil area and angular velocity. Top Now go on to the Options