CEA A2 Syllabus 

In the exam you are expected to be able to: 

Deformation of Solids, Thermal Physics, Circular Motion, Oscillations, Atomic, and Nuclear Physics 

4.1 Deformation of Solids 

4.1.1 
State Hooke’s law and use F = kx to solve simple problems; 

4.1.2 
demonstrate an understanding of the terms elastic and plastic deformation and elastic limit; 

4.1.3 
distinguish between limit of proportionality and elastic limit; 

4.1.4 
define stress, strain and the Young modulus; 

4.1.5 
perform and describe an experiment to determine the Young modulus; 

4.1.6 
use the equation for strain energy, E = ½Fx = ½kx^{ 2} ; 

4.1.7 
demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the stress, strain and Young modulus of a material when making design and economic decisions about materials use. General material properties can be seen in Materials 1 

4.2 Thermal Physics 

4.2.1 
Describe
simple experiments on the behaviour of gases to show that pV =
constant for a fixed mass of ; 

4.2.2 
recall and use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT ; (These equations will not appear on the datasheet; you have to learn them. Where the word recall is not shown, these equations are on the datasheet.) 

4.2.3 
recall and use the ideal gas equation in the form pV = NkT; 

4.2.4 
Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of internal energy as the random distribution of potential and kinetic energy among molecules; 

4.2.5 
use the equation: ; 

4.2.6 
use the equation for average molecular kinetic energy: ; 

4.2.7 
demonstrate an understanding of the concept of absolute zero of temperature; 

4.2.8 
perform and describe an electrical method for determining specific heat capacity; 

4.2.9 
use the equation Q = mcΔӨ . 

4.3 Uniform Circular Motion 

4.3.1 
Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of angular velocity; 

4.3.2 
recall and use the equation v=rω ; 

4.3.3 
apply the relationship:
to motion in a circle at constant speed. (Further examples of Circular Motion can be found in Further Mechanics 2.) 

4.4 Simple Harmonic Motion 

4.4.1 
Define simple harmonic motion (SHM) using the equation a = ω^{2} x, where ω = 2πf ; 

4.4.2 
perform calculations using the equation x = A cos ωt ; 

4.4.3 
investigate experimentally and graphically the motion of the simple pendulum and the loaded spiral spring; 

4.4.4 
use the equations: and ; 

4.4.5 
demonstrate an understanding of SHM graphs, including measuring velocity from the gradient of a displacementtime graph; 

4.4.6 
use the terms free vibrations, forced vibrations, resonance and damping in this context; 

4.4.7 
demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of light damping, overdamping and critical damping; 

4.4.8 
describe mechanical examples of resonance and damping; 

4.5 The Nucleus 

4.5.1 
Describe alphaparticle scattering as evidence of the existence of atomic nuclei; 

4.5.2 
interpret the variation of nuclear radius with nucleon number; 

4.5.3 
use the equation:
to estimate the density of nuclear matter. 

4.6 Nuclear Decay 

4.6.1 
Demonstrate an understanding of how the nature of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation determines their penetration and range; 

4.6.2 
calculate changes to nucleon number and proton number as a result of emissions; 

4.6.3 
demonstrate an understanding of the random and exponential nature of radioactive decay; 

4.6.4 
use the equation A =  λN, where λ is defined as the fraction per second of the decaying atoms; 

4.6.5 
use the equation A = A_{0}e^{ λt },where A is the activity; 

4.6.6 
define halflife; 

4.6.7 
use the equation:


4.6.8 
describe an experiment to measure halflife of a radioactive source. (A model is described here rather than the decay of a particular isotope.) 
Particles 2 
4.7 Nuclear Energy 

4.7.1 
Demonstrate an understanding of the equivalence of mass and energy; 

4.7.2 
recall and use the equation E = Δmc ^{2} and demonstrate an understanding that it applies to all energy changes; 

4.7.3 
describe how the binding energy per nucleon varies with mass number; 

4.7.4 
describe the principles of fission and fusion with reference to the binding energy per nucleon curve. 

4.8 Nuclear Fission and Fusion 

4.8.1 
demonstrate an
understanding of the terms chain reaction, critical size,
moderators, control rods, 

4.8.2 
demonstrate an understanding of the social, environmental, security and economic issues surrounding the use of nuclear power as a solution to a future energy crisis; 

4.8.3 
describe the ITER (tokamak concept) fusion reactor in terms of fuel, DT reaction, temperature required, plasma, three methods of plasma heating, vacuum vessel, blanket, magnetic confinement of plasma, difficulties of achieving fusion on a practical terrestrial scale, and advantages and disadvantages of fusion; 

4.8.4 
describe the following methods of plasma confinement: gravitational, inertial and magnetic. 

Fields, Capacitors, and Magnetic Fields 

5.1 Force Fields 

5.1.1 
explain the concept of a field of force, using field lines to describe the field, indicate its direction and show the field strength. 

5.2 Gravitational Fields 

5.2.1 
Define gravitational field strength; 

5.2.2 
recall and use the equation:


5.2.3 
state Newton’s law of universal gravitation; 

5.2.4 
recall and use the equation for the gravitational force between point masses:


5.2.5 
recall and apply the equation for gravitational field strength:
and use this equation to calculate the mass, m; 

5.2.6 
apply knowledge of circular motion to planetary and satellite motion; 

5.2.7 
show that the mathematical form of Kepler’s third law (t ^{2} proportional to r ^{3} ) is consistent with Newton’s law of universal gravitation; 

5.2.8 
demonstrate an understanding of the unique conditions of period, position and direction of rotation required of a geostationary satellite; 

5.3 Electric Fields 

5.3.1 
Define electric field strength; 

5.3.2 
recall and use the equation: ; 

5.3.3 
state Coulomb’s law for the force between point charges; 

5.3.4 
recall and use the equation for the force between two point charges:
and ε_{0} is the permittivity of a vacuum; 

5.3.5 
recall and use the equation for the electric field strength due to a point charge:


5.3.6 
recall that for a uniform electric field, the field strength is constant, and recall and use the equation E = V/d ; 

5.3.7 
state the similarities and differences in gravitational and electric fields. 

5.4 Capacitors 

5.4.1 
Define capacitance; 

5.4.2 
recall and use the equation C = Q/V ; 

5.4.3 
define the unit of capacitance, the farad; 

5.4.4 
recall and use the equation E = 1/2 QV or its equivalent for calculating the energy of a charged capacitor; 

5.4.5 
recall and use the equations for capacitors in series and in parallel; 

5.4.6 
perform and describe experiments to demonstrate the charge and discharge of a capacitor; 

5.4.7 
confirm the exponential nature of capacitor discharge using V or I discharge curves; 

5.4.8 
use the equations: and ; 

5.4.9 
define time constant and use the equation τ= RC ; 

5.4.10 
perform and describe an experiment to determine the time constant for RC circuits; 

5.4.11 
apply knowledge and understanding of time constants and stored energy to electronic flash guns and defibrillators. (Further notes on the Physics of Capacitors can be found in Capacitors 3) 

5.5 Magnetic Fields 

5.5.1 
Describe the shape and direction of the magnetic field produced by the current in a coil of wire and a long straight wire; 

5.5.2 
demonstrate an understanding that there is a force on a currentcarrying conductor in a perpendicular magnetic field and be able to predict the direction of the force; 

5.5.3 
demonstrate an understanding that the forces produced on a currentcarrying coil in a magnetic field is the principle behind the electric motor; 

5.5.4 
recall and use the equation F = BIl ; 

5.5.5 
define magnetic flux density; 

5.5.6 
demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage; 

5.5.7 
recall and use the equations for magnetic flux, φ = BA, and magnetic flux linkage, N φ = NBA; 

5.5.8 
state, use and demonstrate experimentally Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws of electromagnetic induction; 

5.5.9 
recall and calculate average induced e.m.f. as rate of change of flux linkage with time; 

5.5.10 
demonstrate an understanding of the simple a.c. generator and use the equation E = BAN ω sinωt. 

5.5.11 
describe how a transformer works; 

5.5.12 
recall and use the equation:
for transformers; 

5.5.13 
explain power losses in transformers and the advantages of highvoltage transmission of electricity; 

5.6 Deflection of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields 

5.6.1 
Demonstrate an understanding that a charge in a uniform electric field experiences a force; 

5.6.2 
recall and use the equation F = qE to calculate the magnitude of the force and determine the direction of the force; 

5.6.3 
demonstrate an understanding that a moving charge in a uniform, perpendicular magnetic field experiences a force; 

5.6.4 
recall and use the equation F = Bqv to calculate the magnitude of the force, and determine the direction of the force. 

5.7 Particle Accelerators 

5.7.1 
Describe the basic principles of operation of a synchrotron; 

5.7.2 
demonstrate an understanding of the concept of a relativistic mass increase as particles are accelerated towards the speed of light; (Description only is needed.) 

5.7.3 
demonstrate an understanding of the concept of antimatter and that it can be produced using the collisions of highenergy particles from the accelerators; 

5.7.4 
describe the process of annihilation in terms of photon emission, and conservation of charge, energy and momentum. 

5.8 Fundamental Particles 

5.8.1 
Explain the concept of a fundamental particle; 

5.8.2 
identify the four fundamental forces and their associated exchange particles; 

5.8.3 
classify particles as gauge bosons, leptons and hadrons (mesons and baryons); 

5.8.4 
state examples of each class of particle; 

5.8.5 
describe the structure of hadrons in terms of quarks; 

5.8.6 
demonstrate an
understanding of the concept of conservation of: 

5.8.7 
describe βdecay in terms of the basic quark model. 
Particles 11 
That is it for the A2 syllabus 