Thermal Physics Tutorial 1 - Heat Flow
Heat is the transfer of energy, a flow of energy from a hot body to a cooler body. It must not be confused with internal energy, caused by the vibrations of atoms or molecules within a body. Temperature is a representation of internal energy, not heat flow. The more internal energy there is, the higher the temperature.
warned his first year university class, “…it is internal energy.
If I catch any of you calling it ‘heat’, I will personally come out
and thump you.”
Can you explain the difference so that none of his students will get into trouble with the professor?
We can increase the internal energy by:
Transferring heat into the body
Doing a job of
work on the body.
Some houses have electric central heating using night storage heaters. These consist of a large metal box full of bricks, in which there are electrical elements. The elements are switched on at night. Electricity is cheaper at night, as power stations running at half load run less efficiently.
The elements transfer electrical energy to heat. The heat flows into the bricks, increasing their internal energy. The temperature rises. When the electricity is turned off in the morning, the internal energy in the bricks is used to heat the room. The rate of heat flow into the room can be controlled with flaps.
Brownian motion can be used as a model to show the vibration of molecules.
Heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass through a unit temperature rise. It is given the physics code c. The formula associated with this is:
Heat flow (J) = mass (kg) × specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1) × temperature change (K)
is the flow of heat energy.
is the temperature
change. It doesn’t matter
whether temperatures are in Kelvin or degrees Celsius.
Since the steps are the same, the difference will be the same.
Units for specific heat are joules per kilogram per kelvin (J kg-1 K-1). It is important that the masses are in kilograms. Sometimes you might come across c in non-SI units of J g-1 K-1, but it is important that it is converted. A material with a heat capacity of 1 J g-1 K-1 will have a capacity of 1000 J kg-1 K-1 in SI units.
Here are the results of an experiment:
(a) Which piece of data is irrelevant?
(b) What is the specific heat capacity of the material?
Watch out for conversions. Make sure that your mass in the equation is in kilograms.
It does not matter whether the temperature is in Celsius or Kelvin.
The steps are the same, and it’s the difference that matters.
Missing these conversions is a very common bear trap
We can measure the specific heat capacity of a metal in a simple experiment as shown in the diagram below:
We measure the voltage and current, which gives us power. We should keep the voltage and current steady. We then measure the temperature and time.
We can easily work out the energy supplied by:
E = VIt
We then need to plot the graph of temperature change against energy:
From this graph we can work out the specific heat from the gradient.
Specific heat with two materials
You may well find yourself having to work with more than one material. An example of this may be:
dropping a hot lump of metal into a beaker of water;
taking into account the specific heat of a container, as oil is heated.
Although this may appear more complex, it's not that much harder than with a single material. Here is a table of specific heat capacities of some materials:
The picture shows some oil in a copper calorimeter (a metal beaker). As the oil gets hot, so will the calorimeter, so some energy will go to the oil, while some goes to the calorimeter. We will use this for the worked example:
|A copper calorimeter has a mass of 0.20 kg. Oil, of mass 0.12 kg, is placed into the calorimeter. The temperature of both the oil and the calorimeter is 20 oC. 15 kJ of energy is supplied to the oil and calorimeter, and the final temperature is 50 oC. What is the specific heat capacity of the oil? (c for copper = 381 J kg-1 K-1)|
Now let us see what happens if we drop a hot lump of metal into some cool liquid. The liquid will have a low starting temperature, while the metal has a high starting temperature. The key to solving a problem like this is the energy flow DQ from the metal is the same as the energy flow into the liquid. Let us look at that in the next example:
|A lump of iron of mass 1.0 kg has a temperature of 500 K. It is dropped into 10 kg water which has a temperature of 300 K. Neglecting the heat capacity of the container, and assuming that the mass of water lost to steam is negligible, what is the final temperature of the iron and water? (c for iron = 438 J kg-1 K-1. c for water = 4200 J kg-1 K-1.)|
The temperature change is NOT 200 K. The energy
from the hot iron raises the temperature of the water. The energy
doing out of the iron means its temperature will fall.
In this case, it is important to use absolute temperatures. You will notice that the change in the temperature of the water is not very much. Water has a particularly high specific heat capacity, which means you need to put in a lot of heat to get even a small rise in temperature. That is why water is good at cooling things.
specific latent heat is the energy to change the state of a unit
mass of liquid without a temperature change.
There is a value for specific latent heat during:
of these latent heats we are using, the calculation is the same.
The code for latent heat is
units are Joules per kilogram (J kg-1).
water, the specific latent heat of fusion,
= 334 000 J/kg. The specific latent
heat of vaporisation is rather higher,
= 2.3 x 106 J/kg
(Harder) Calculate how much energy is needed to melt, bring to the boil, and boil away 0.5 kg water. How long would this take a 2 kW kettle?
A change of state graph shows the idea of latent heat.
The rise in temperature is a reflection of the increase in internal energy. In simple terms, internal energy is about vibration of molecules; the greater the vibration of molecules, the higher the internal energy. When materials change state, work has to be done to break bonds between molecules. Also most materials expand, so work has to be done against external forces. So the latent heat represents the sum of these two:
breaking of bonds;
expansion of the material.
While the material is changing state, there no increase in internal energy, so the temperature stays the same.
The reverse is true. As a gas condenses, heat is given out. This heat can be made to do a job of work. However, as the gas condenses, there is no change in temperature. Nor is there a change in temperature as the liquid freezes to a solid.
While most work has been done on water (as it’s very common and convenient to use), the same models can be applied to other substances. Investigating iron would not be easy, as it melts at over 1000 oC and boils at about 3000 oC.
Hot materials can do jobs of work, which is studied in detail in a discipline called Thermodynamics (see the option Applied Physics). The steam engine below is an example of how hot fluids are used to do very large amounts of work.
You can also see that a considerable amount of heat list being lost as waste steam.